Choline Supplement For Fatty Liver


Get Enough Folate And Methionine

Phosphatidyl Choline Liver and Brain Benefits 60 Capsul…

Folate is a B vitamin that like choline, is able to donate methyl groups to be used in important metabolic processes. Having adequate folate intake decreases the metabolic demand of choline since both compounds can share the duty of supplying methyl groups for metabolic processes. Folate can be found in a wide variety of foods, including spinach, asparagus, brussels sprouts, black-eyed peas, avocado, kidney beans, wheat germ, peanuts, papaya, and banana. Bread and breakfast cereals are often fortified with folate.

Methionine is an essential amino acid that is critical to the endogenous production of choline. Getting optimal ratios of essential amino acids in your diet, including methionine, are important for making sure your body produces enough choline. Methionine can be found in sesame seeds, brazil nuts, and meat.

Disclaimer And Safety Information

This information is not intended to replace the attention or advice of a physician or other qualified health care professional. Anyone who wishes to embark on any dietary, drug, exercise, or other lifestyle change intended to prevent or treat a specific disease or condition should first consult with and seek clearance from a physician or other qualified health care professional. Pregnant women in particular should seek the advice of a physician before using any protocol listed on this website. The protocols described on this website are for adults only, unless otherwise specified. Product labels may contain important safety information and the most recent product information provided by the product manufacturers should be carefully reviewed prior to use to verify the dose, administration, and contraindications. National, state, and local laws may vary regarding the use and application of many of the therapies discussed. The reader assumes the risk of any injuries. The authors and publishers, their affiliates and assigns are not liable for any injury and/or damage to persons arising from this protocol and expressly disclaim responsibility for any adverse effects resulting from the use of the information contained herein.

Choline For Fatty Liver Disease

Recently, a lot of hype has surrounded choline for its possible role in preventing fatty liver disease. Because of the role that choline plays in fat metabolism, connections have also been drawn between choline and weight loss.

Research shows that deficiency in choline leads to abnormalities in fat metabolism in the liver, which may contribute to patterns of lipid accumulation that are characteristic of fatty liver disease. Research has also determined that choline deficiency causes inefficient functioning of cellular mitochondria, the components of cells that are responsible for producing energy. Moreover, choline deficiency results in stress in the endoplasmic reticulum , the component of the cell that is responsible for processing proteins. Abnormalities in mitochondrial function and ER contribute to inflammation that fuels nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

However, the argument for choline supplementation to reverse fatty liver disease is not so clear cut. Researchers in Australia concluded that choline requirements are highly dependent on an individuals genetic makeup, hormone production, gut microbiome, and nutrient intake. The researchers further explained that too much choline could contribute to heart disease.

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Groups At Risk Of Choline Deficiency

The following groups are at higher risk of developing a choline deficiency:

  • Pregnant people
  • People with certain genetic alterations of genes involved in metabolizing choline, folate, and methionine
  • People who require parenteral nutrition, since choline is not routinely added to parenteral solutions

Pregnant women are at risk of choline deficiency because their requirements are higher and they don’t get enough choline in their diet. Historically, many prenatal vitamin formulations did not contain choline. Check the supplement facts label for choline content in prenatal vitamins.

Postmenopausal women are also at greater risk.

What Is Choline An Essential Nutrient With Many Benefits


Choline is a recently discovered nutrient.

It was only acknowledged as a required nutrient by the Institute of Medicine in 1998.

Although your body makes some, you need to get choline from your diet to avoid a deficiency.

However, many people are not meeting the recommended intake for this nutrient .

This article provides everything you need to know about choline, including what it is and why you need it.

2 ).

This means its required for normal bodily function and human health. Though your liver can make small amounts, you must obtain the majority through your diet.

Choline is an organic, water-soluble compound. It is neither a vitamin nor a mineral.

However, it is often grouped with the vitamin B complex due to its similarities. In fact, this nutrient affects a number of vital bodily functions.

It impacts liver function, healthy brain development, muscle movement, your nervous system and metabolism.

Therefore, adequate amounts are needed for optimal health .


Choline plays an important part in many processes in your body, including:


Choline is involved in many different processes, such as cell structure and messaging, fat transport and metabolism, DNA synthesis and nervous system maintenance.

Due to a lack of available evidence, a Reference Daily Intake for choline has not been determined.

However, the Institute of Medicine has set a value for adequate intake .

Nevertheless, requirements differ according to genetic makeup and gender (

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Can Choline Reverse Fatty Liver Disease

It remains unclear.

Most of the research done on the benefits of choline as well as the relationship between this nutrient and fatty liver disease show that choline may work to help prevent the development and even the progression of this illness .

So far the only evidence in this nutrient reversing the effects and progression of any illness can be found in an animal study published in 2002 by The Journal of Nutrition. In the study, researchers found that eating more choline can help reverse choline deficiency-induced liver damage in mice .

Should You Be Supplementing With Choline And Inositol

Choline inositol is commonly combined in supplement form. Do you need to be taking this supplement? Most likely not, unless determined by your health care provider. A varied diet will likely meet your daily value of choline. Unless you have a strong genetic tendency that interferes with endogenous choline production and the normal utilization of choline in the body, you likely dont need to supplement with choline and inositol.

If you do decide to supplement with choline and inositol with advice from your health care provider, make sure to seek out high-quality supplements. Its important to keep in mind that dietary supplements are not assessed by the Food and Drug Administration for their ability to treat and manage health conditions. Always read supplement facts and do your research on specific brands. In dietary supplements, choline is often available in the form of choline bitartrate or CDP-choline. Many choline supplements are packaged in vegetarian capsules, with magnesium stearate as an additive. However, research shows that in small dietary amounts, magnesium stearate doesnt pose health risks.

B-complex vitamins contain essential vitamins like niacin, B12, and folate that help stabilize choline levels. Some B-complex vitamins even contain added choline. L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine is another supplement form that provides a form of choline that has been shown to have nootropic effects.

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How Does Choline Affect The Liver

Research on humans and other mammals suggested that choline is necessary to maintain the livers normal function. Scientists in the 1930s demonstrated that choline deficiency caused fatty liver disease in dogs and rats. The scientists introduced choline to the animals diet and found that this resolved the disease.

Choline plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids and methylation reactions in the body. Methylation reactions are essential for gene expression.

Choline also plays an integral part in fat metabolism in the liver and regulating homocysteine. Furthermore, choline supports the membranes of mitochondria, which are the energy components in cells.

The body can produce choline from phosphatidylcholine which is a type of specialized fat molecule, or phospholipid. However, people also need to consume choline from foods to obtain enough of the nutrient and keep the liver healthy.

highest choline intake of 412 milligrams a day, was associated with a lower risk of fatty liver disease in women with a moderate body mass index , between 18.524.9. This lower risk was in comparison to the lowest intake of 179 mg a day.

However, the researchers found no association between choline intake and lower risk of fatty liver disease in women with obesity or more weight.

Further conclusive research into the effects of choline on fatty liver disease is necessary.

How Do I Know If I Have Nafld

Phosphatidyl Choline Liver and Brain Benefits 60 Capsul…

Most people with NAFLD have no symptoms, but if you have other metabolic health problems like overweight or obesity, type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, excess belly fat, and high triglyceride and cholesterol levels, there is a good chance you have NAFLD. Your doctor may use body measurements and blood tests to determine your likelihood of having NAFLD. If there is a need to know for sure, your doctor will order a liver ultrasound, possibly followed by a liver biopsy.

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What Are The Benefits Of Choline In The Body

Some benefits of this essential nutrient include :

  • Supports brain function and memory
  • Acts as a neurotransmitter
  • Supports brain development of fetuses in the womb
  • Is involved in many reactions which support many different structures and functions within the body
  • How about choline benefits for the liver? How does this essential nutrient positively affect this organ?

    The biggest benefit of choline for the liver is that it helps remove fat from the liver which in turn may help prevent non alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver damage .

    According to the Mayo Clinic, while researchers are still not sure why fat accumulates in the livers of some, they have linked this issue to factors such as high fat levels in the blood, high blood pressure, obesity, and insulin resistance.

    People who also suffer from diseases like PCOS, sleep apnea, type 2 diabetes, as well as those with thyroid problems are at a higher risk of NAFLD. On the other hand, liver damage can also be caused by either obesity, hepatitis A or B, and alcohol abuse.

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    Measurement Of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    Intracellular ROS generation was determined by a ROS kit . AML12 cells were collected and washed twice with PBS and then fresh serum-medium containing 10 mM DCFH-DA was added to the cells. After 30 min incubation in the absence of light, cells were washed and then analyzed immediately by a flow cytometric assay with excitation and emission wavelengths of 488 and 525 nm, respectively.

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    What Is The Best Form Of Choline To Take

    Research on the differences among the forms of choline found in supplements is lacking. However, some studies suggest that certain forms may be easier to absorb or better for certain purposes.

    For example, citicoline may be more effective for brain health because of its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, whereas phosphatidylcholine has been shown to be beneficial for supporting liver health in people with NAFLD .

    Dosage: How Much Choline Should I Take

    best choline supplement for fatty liver

    Always speak with a healthcare provider before taking a supplement to ensure that the supplement and dosage are appropriate for your individual needs.

    Not enough evidence is available to provide a recommended dietary allowance for choline, but an adequate intake has been established.

    Choline supplementation is likely safe for most people in doses less than 3.5 g daily.

    Adequate Intake for Choline

    If you experience side effects, discontinue supplementation and discuss with your healthcare provider.

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    Choline & Soy Lecithin

    Its also worth noting that choline can be found in soy products, especially soy lecithin. Choline is a key component of lecithin , which is a fat-like substance found in our cells. Soy lecithin is a controversial substance that is used in food products as an emulsifier and sold as supplements.

    Soy lecithin contains choline and other molecules, including fatty acids, glycerol and phosolipids. It was originally extracted from egg yolks, but today is derived from cottonseeds, marine sources, milk, sunflowers or most commonly, soy beans. Lecithin itself has important roles in the body, including to help maintain cell membranes, transmit nerve impulses, process fat and cholesterol, and perform other tasks.

    Soy lecithin is added to many processed, packaged foods because it helps to bind foods and acts like an emulsifier, preserving the texture of foods and making them more shelf-stable. Although soy lecithin is considered safe by the FDA, at times it can result in negative reactions including nausea, bloating, constipation, rashes on the skin, abdominal pain and other digestive problems.

    I have some other issues with soy lecithin in general, including that it contains isoflavones that have estrogenic effects on the body and that the majority of soy on the market today is genetically modified. Theres really no way to detect the source of soy lecithin, so we should assume that its extracted from GM soy, unless its labeled as organic.

    Rna Extraction And Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Total RNA from mice livers or cultured cells was extracted using TRIzol reagent , according to the manufacturers instructions. Five micrograms of total RNA was synthesized into cDNA using a reverse transcriptase kit . The cDNA was then used as a template in PCR reactions using gene-specific primer pairs. Conventional PCR conditions using one primer pair per reaction tube were as follows: 95 °C for 1 min, 55 °C for 1 min, and 72 °C for 1 min for 40 cycles. After quantifying band intensities by using densitometry, the relative steady-state level of mRNA was calculated after normalizing to GAPDH. Primers specific for mice IL-1, IL-6, TNF- and GAPDH, for which sequences are shown in Table , were designed using the Primer 5.0 software design system and synthesized by Shanghai Invitrogen Biotechnology Company.

    Table 4 Primer sequences used for amplification of cDNA by RT-PCR

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    Why You Should Trust Us

    Every brand and product on our list has been reviewed by registered dietitians and vetted to ensure that it aligns with Healthlines brand integrity standards and approach to well-being. Each product in this article:

    • adheres to allowable health claims and labeling requirements, per FDA regulations
    • is manufactured in facilities that adhere to the current good manufacturing practices established by the FDA
    • is produced by a medically credible company that follows ethical, legal, and industry best standards
    • is made by a company that provides objective measures of trust, such as having its supplements validated by third-party labs
    • Serving size: 2 capsules
    • Dose per serving: 500 mg

    Nested Naturals is a supplement company focused on creating plant-based wellness supplements backed by third-party testing.

    Its Choline Bitrate supplement contains 91% of the DV for choline, making it a good option if your prenatal vitamin is lacking or is low in choline .

    Choline is an essential nutrient for fetal brain development, and research suggests that increased choline intake during pregnancy may positively affect a childs memory, thinking ability, behavior, and even chronic disease risk later in life .

    Nested Naturals Choline Bitartrate is vegan-friendly, third-party tested, and manufactured in an NSF-certified CGMP facility.

    For best results, take 2 capsules per day with water or follow a healthcare professionals recommendation.

    When To See A Doctor

    Fatty Liver Disease And Choline

    Usually, NAFLD is a silent disease, so people may have few or no symptoms. However, symptoms may include tiredness and a feeling of discomfort in the upper right side of the abdomen.

    A doctor may conduct a physical exam and ask a person about their medical history to help diagnose NAFLD. They may also arrange blood tests, imaging tests, or a liver biopsy.

    If someone with NAFLD wishes to try a choline supplement, they should check with their doctor first as it may be unsuitable or interact with their medication.

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    Impact Of Choline In Patients With Nafld

    The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government.Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.
    First Posted : January 20, 2022Last Update Posted : October 18, 2022
    Condition or disease

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has attracted increasing attention given its high prevalence, estimated at 20% to 44% in Western countries and 5% to 38% in Asia as well as its correlation with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

    NAFLD is the result of hepatic fat accumulation in patients without a history of excessive alcohol consumption, predisposing medications or other defined liver disorders. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of liver disorders. At one end of this spectrum, is simple hepatic steatosis and the other end is non-alcoholic steatohepatitis which is characterized by hepatocellular injury, inflammation and fibrosis sometimes leading to cirrhosis. It is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which is defined by the presence of central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension.

    How Much Choline Should I Take For Fatty Liver

    As of now, the Food and Nutrition Board has still not established a Recommended Dietary Allowance for choline the amount of this nutrient that healthy individuals need daily. However, they do offer guidelines and recommendations for an Adequate Intake recommendation.

    To anyone that would like to make sure they are getting enough this nutrient, potentially as a preventative measure against liver damage

    • Men and women aged 19 years and up are recommended to get 550 mg and 425 mg respectively, daily.
    • Pregnant and lactating women from 19 years and up need a higher intake of 450 mg and 550 mg daily, respectively.

    If you have fatty liver disease and would like to increase your intake of this essential nutrient, because the recommendation data is unavailable , we suggest you seek advice from your doctor.

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