Risk Factors Of Pancreatic Cancer

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Link Between Pcos And Increased Risk Of Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer: Signs, Symptoms and Risk Factors

Patricia McKnight

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome may be at a higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer, say researchers reporting a single-center case-control study.

A diagnosis of PCOS was associated with a 1.9-fold higher risk of pancreatic cancer after adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, estrogen level, and diabetes.

This is the second study to find such an association.

“Our study findings combined with those from the 2019 Swedish Registry study offer compelling evidence that PCOS may be a novel risk factor for pancreatic cancer,” said corresponding author Mengmeng Du, ScD, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

“These data suggest some individuals may have unknown metabolic derangements that may underlie the development of both conditions,” the team concluded.

The findings were published recently in JAMA Oncology.

Approached for comment, Srinivas Gaddam, MD, MPH, associate director of pancreatic biliary research medicine, Cedars-Sinai, suggested that the findings pave the way for a better understanding of the two diseases, but he emphasized that more research is needed.

“I think there’s more research to be done because now we’re seeing more younger women get pancreatic cancer,” Goddam said. “So that makes it interesting whether PCOS itself contributes to pancreatic cancer. I still think the jury is out there.”

Risk Factors For Pancreatic Cancer: Underlying Mechanisms And Potential Targets

Pancreatic Cancer has been and still is one of the deadliest types of human malignancies. The annual mortality rates almost equal incidence rates making this disease virtually universally fatal. The 5-year survival of patients with pancreatic cancer is a dismal 5% or less. Therapeutic strategies are extremely …

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Family History And Genetic Predisposition Syndromes

For some people, pancreatic cancer is hereditary. In fact, up to 10 percent of all pancreatic cancers may result from genetic mutations passed from parent to child, according to . Patients with a family history fall into two big categories: defined syndromes that lead to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, or familial pancreatic cancer for which no specific molecular cause has yet been identified. But the vast majority of pancreatic cancers are not a result of family genetics but other causes.

A few genetic syndromes that may cause pancreatic cancer include:

  • Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome
  • Familial pancreatitis
  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

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Hereditary And Genetic Factors

Several hereditary and genetic factors for PC have been identified and a few have been subject of meta- or pooled analysis . A positive family history of PC has been associated with an 80% increased risk of developing the disease, both in a meta-analysis and in a nested case-control study using pooled data from 10 cohort studies.

The ABO blood group has recently re-emerged as an important susceptibility factor for PC. Two meta-analyses, and a pooled analysis reported a 3040% increased risk of PC among individuals having a non-O blood group. Whereas the evidence of the previous associations between family history and ABO blood group and PC risk is strong, most meta-analyses that examined genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms as possible susceptibility factors for PC are based on very limited number of underpowered original reports .

Germ-line mutations have been associated with an elevated PC risk, often as part of a familial cancer syndrome, but available risk estimates often rely on single studies. Several systematic reviews on the topic have been published but no meta-analysis or pooled analysis.

Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

Pancreatic Cancer: Causes and Risk Factors

A risk factor is anything that increases your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a persons age or family history, cant be changed.

In some cases, there might be a factor that may decrease your risk of developing cancer or has an unclear effect. That is not considered a risk factor, but you may see them noted clearly on this page as well.

Having a risk factor, or even many, does not mean that you will get cancer. And some people who get cancer may have few or no known risk factors.

Here are some of the risk factors known to increase your risk for pancreatic cancer.

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Study Participants And Matching

Our study used the data of 223,551 medical checkup participants in 2009 included in the National Health Information Database. Among them, 196 patients previously diagnosed with pancreatic cancer between 2002 and the date before medical checkup in 2009 were excluded. Among the remaining 223,355 participants, 57 participants without information about fasting blood glucose were excluded. Only 381 incident cases of pancreatic cancer developed between 2009 and 2013. Therefore, we adopted matched design to increase the statistical efficiency. 18,669 controls were randomly selected from the participants after 1:50 matching with respect to major covariates , systolic blood pressure , total cholesterol, -glutamyltransferase , estimated glomerular filtration rate , smoking amount , alcohol intake and physical activity). Finally, 19,050 participants were included in final analysis and were monitored for incident pancreatic cancer. The total follow-up period was 82,276.8 person-years and average follow-up period was 4.32 person-years.

Family History And Genetic Factors

Family history

Pancreatic cancer risk is 62-76% higher in people with a first-degree relative with the disease, meta- and pooled analyses have shown. Risk is higher in those with more first-degree relatives affected, or first-degree relatives diagnosed at a younger age. Pancreatic cancer risk is 45% higher in people with a first-degree relative with prostate cancer, a pooled analysis showed.

Genetic factors

Pancreatic cancer risk is higher in people with the following rare genetic conditions, compared with the general population:

  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome – more than 100 times higher risk
  • Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome – 13-38 times higher risk
  • Lynch syndrome/hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer – up to around 9 times higher risk
  • BRCA2 mutation – 3.5 times higher risk
  • BRCA1 mutation – up to 2.3 times higher risk .

These genetic syndromes explain a small proportion of familial pancreatic cancer.

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Signs Of Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer can have symptoms similar to viral hepatitis or gallstones, or no symptoms at all. Because of this, its often diagnosed after it has spread. Symptoms may include:

  • Pain in the upper abdomen, often with pain in the back directly behind the upper abdomen
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Floating or foul-smelling stools
  • Ascites, a condition in which excessive fluid builds up in the abdominal cavity causing swelling and distention of the belly and, sometimes, pain and difficulty breathing
  • New or sudden worsening of diabetes
  • Difficulty swallowing, which becomes worse over time
  • Excessive burping
  • Loss of appetite or feeling full early after starting to eat
  • Weakness or fatigue

Computed Tomography/positron Emission Tomography

What are the risk factors when it comes to pancreatic cancer?

In the diagnosis of suspected pancreatic lesions, assessment of resectability of PC, assessment of vascular invasion and diagnosis of metastatic disease, multidetector computed tomography is now a routine examination.

MDCT can display not only small branch vessels and peripancreatic vessels, but also vascular anatomical variations, which can better understand the details of the lesions and the spatial anatomical relationship, show the changes in tumor morphology and changes in the density of various tissues, which is conducive to reflecting the stage of PC, which is related to whether surgical resection is performed. At the same time, the degree of invasion of surrounding organs and blood vessels can be determined, and the characteristics of metastatic foci can be observed. Furthermore, the influence of respiratory movement can be avoided, thereby reducing the potential for missed diagnosis of small lesions.109

The diagnostic criteria for staging refer to the PC staging established by the Japanese Pancreatic Case Association Criteria: Stage I, tumor diameter is less than or equal to 2 cm, no vascular invasion and metastasis Stage II, tumor diameter is greater than 2 cm and less than 4 cm, enveloped cancer cell infiltration, no vascular invasion, metastasis Stage III, tumor diameter is greater than 4 cm, with existence of nearby lymphatic metastasis and Stage IV, tumor diameter is greater than 4 cm, with evidence of distant lymph node metastasis.

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Viral Hepatitis: Virology And Epidemiology

HBV is a DNA virus, belonging to the Orthohepadnavirus genus, and is classified into 10 genotypes, AJ . This virus can be transmitted sexually, by blood, and vertically, from the mother to the fetus . HBV genotypes have several peculiarities in terms of geographical distribution, route of transmission, and organ damage .

HDV is a virusoid that can only replicate in the presence of HBV. HDV can be transmitted simultaneously with HBV or an HDV infection can later overlap with a chronic HBV infection . About 510% of patients infected with HBV associate an HDV infection. This conglomerate of viral infections is more common among people who use intravenous drugs .

What Causes Pancreatic Cancer

While the causes of pancreatic cancer are largely unknown at this time, cancer is a disease that’s caused by mutations to the DNA. Studies have identified many risk factors that may lead to these mutations and the development of pancreatic cancer. This guide covers the basics of pancreatic cancer, as well as the risk factors and recent research.

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Types Of Pancreatic Cancer

When cells inside your pancreas grow abnormally, its called pancreatic cancer. Cells clump into masses called tumors. There are several types of pancreatic cancer. Each type is diagnosed and treated differently. It is critical to have a skilled and experienced pathologist determine what type of pancreatic cancer you have.

Lifetime Risk Of Pancreatic Cancer

Risk Factors of Pancreatic Cancer

The estimated lifetime risk of being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer is 1 in 53 for males, and 1 in 57 for females born after 1960 in the UK.

These figures have been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of pancreatic cancer over the course of a lifetime is very low .

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We Dont Fully Understand Exactly What Causes Pancreatic Cancer But We Do Know Some Risk Factorsa Risk Factor Is Anything That Increases Your Chances Of Getting A Disease

A lot of the evidence about the risk factors for pancreatic cancer is unclear. Some studies may find that something increases the risk, while others may show that the same thing has no effect. And there may be other risk factors that researchers havent found yet.

The information here is about the things research suggests may increase someones risk of pancreatic cancer.

Its important to remember that having some of the risk factors doesnt mean you will definitely get pancreatic cancer. Remember too that people sometimes get pancreatic cancer even if they dont have any of the risk factors.

Smoking And Smokeless Tobacco

Around 20 out of 100 cases of pancreatic cancer in the UK are caused by smoking. Cigarettes, cigars, pipes and chewing tobacco all increase pancreatic cancer risk.

The best way for people who smoke to reduce their risk of cancer and improve their overall health, is to stop smoking completely. The risk of pancreatic cancer in people who stopped smoking 20 years ago is the same as for people who have never smoked.

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Screening Program For High

The Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer has one of the largest studies to screen individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer and is one of the world leaders in prevention of pancreatic cancer. Our physicians are leading an international consortium of medical centers in a collaborative, worldwide screening effort.

Additional risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include:

What Causes Cancer? Cancer Mutations and Random DNA Copying Errors

Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists report data from a new study providing evidence that random DNA copying mistakes account for nearly two-thirds of the mutations that cause cancer. The scientists also explain how this relates to pancreatic cancer.

Most People Who Have Pancreatic Cancer Feel This Symptom First

Pancreatic cancer symptoms and risk factors to know

In recent years, more people are overcoming the odds and beating cancer and while the disease has become more treatable over the last couple of decades due to advances in medicine and early detection through screenings, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the United States, after heart disease. Dr. David Seitz MD, and Medical Director for Ascendant Detox tells us, “Cancer is when abnormal cells in the body begin to grow and divide uncontrollably and then spread to other tissues and organs. According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the leading cause of death globally. It accounted for almost 10 million deaths in 2020. Cancer can affect any part of the body and there are over 200 different types. Although cancer is often thought of as a disease that primarily affects older adults, anyone can be diagnosed with cancer at any age.”

But there is good news. The American Cancer Society states, “The risk of dying from cancer in the United States has decreased over the past 28 years according to annual statistics reported by the American Cancer Society . The cancer death rate for men and women combined fell 32% from its peak in 1991 to 2019, the most recent year for which data were available. Some of this drop appears to be related to an increase in the percentage of people with lung cancer who are living longer after diagnosis, partly because more people are being diagnosed at an early stage of the disease.”

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Alcohol Industry Manipulation Of The Science On Alcohol And Cancer

A study published in 2017 has found that front organisations set up by the world’s leading alcohol companies are actively misleading the public about the risk of cancer due to alcohol consumption. The study drew parallels with the long-standing activities of the tobacco industry. It also claimed that there was a particular focus on misleading women drinkers, because much of the misinformation about cancer produced by these companies was found to be focused on breast cancer.

The alcohol industry around the world has also campaigned to remove laws that require alcoholic beverages to have cancer warning labels.

A 2019 survey conducted by the American Institute for Cancer Research showed that only 45% of Americans were aware of the associated risk of cancer due to alcohol consumption, up from 39% in 2017. The AICR believes that alcohol-related advertisements about the healthy cardiovascular benefits of modest alcohol overshadow messages about the increased cancer risks.

Family Cancer Syndromes And Genetic Factors

Sometimes pancreatic cancer is found to run in families. But only between 5 and 10 in 100 people diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have a family history of it.

You have an increased risk if you have a first degree relative with pancreatic cancer. This risk is higher if you have more than one first degree relative with the disease, or a first degree relative is diagnosed at a young age.

Pancreatic cancer can be part of a family cancer syndrome, where an inherited family gene causes a number of different cancers to develop within the members of one family.

Your risk of pancreatic cancer is higher if you carry the faulty breast cancer gene BRCA2. There is also some evidence that having a BRCA1 gene fault could increase your risk of pancreatic cancer. But the evidence is less strong.

The pancreatic cancer risk is higher in people who have:

  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
  • Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome
  • Lynch syndrome/hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

You often know about these conditions already if one runs in your family.

The risk of pancreatic cancer is increased if you have a history of the following:

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Pancreatic Cancer: A Review Of Risk Factors Diagnosis And Treatment

  • Jimmy Y.C. Chow and more…Encyclopedia of Cancer and Society2007
  • The SAGE Encyclopedia of Cancer and Society2015
  • Ghulam Ishaq Khan and more…The SAGE Encyclopedia of Cancer and Society2015
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  • Linda J. Luecken and more…Encyclopedia of Human Development
  • The SAGE Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research2015
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  • The SAGE Encyclopedia of Cancer and Society2015

Alcohol As A Carcinogen And Cocarcinogen

Causes of Pancreatic Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization has classified alcohol as a Group 1 carcinogen, similar to arsenic, benzene, and asbestos. Its evaluation states, “There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages in humans. â¦Alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans .” After more epidemiological evidence connecting alcohol and cancers became available the IARC reconvened in 2007. Based on epidemiological studies which revealed cancer risk was independent of the type of alcohol and animal studies which showed increased cancer risk with exposure to ethanol alone, the group determined that the ethanol in alcoholic beverages was carcinogenic to humans. Alcohol was determined to increase the risk of developing breast cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancers, pharyngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer, and oral cancer. In 2009, the group determined that acetaldehyde which is a metabolite of ethanol is also carcinogenic to humans. As of 2021, the 15th report of the US National Toxicology Program classifies the consumption of alcoholic beverages as “known to be a human carcinogen” while acetaldehyde is classified as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen”.

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